Cannabis terms

2-AG is present in human breast milk, and thought to be vital in regulating pain, appetite, memory formation, and immune function.

Cannabis flowers produce phytocannabinoids in their raw, unheated, forms. These forms have an extra chemical group, called a carboxyl group, that makes the cannabinoid slightly larger than the more familiar, ‘activate’, forms (like Δ9-THC and CBD). This group means that acid cannabinoids are metabolized in different ways by the body, and don’t necessarily cause the same effects as their ‘active’ counterparts.

A chemical that binds to a receptor and increases its activity.

A chemical that increases or decreases the strength of the signal a receptor sends into the cell.

Also known as the ‘bliss molecule’ anandamide is responsible for the feeling of a runner’s high.

A chemical that binds to a receptor and deactivates, or blocks, its activity.

The measure of how well a chemical binds to a receptor, which impacts how strongly the cell associated with the receptor reacts.

An individual cannabis flower. Bracts are teardrop-shaped and often found in tight clusters at the ends of cannabis branches.

Cannabis products that contains all of the original compounds found in cannabis flower — cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids — and from which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been removed.

A common non-intoxicating compound produced by cannabis, with a wide range of medical applications.

The unheated form of cannabidiol (CBD) that is produced in cannabis flower. See “acid cannabinoids”.

All cannabinoids start as CBG. It is a non-intoxicating compound, and of medical interest for pain management and anxiety relief.

Cannabinoids are compounds uniquely found in cannabis plants, as well as compounds similar to those found in cannabis plants.

Found primarily in the central nervous system, CB1R are responsible for the feeling of intoxication, or ‘high’, when consuming THC.

Found throughout the immune system, the peripheral nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system, CB2R are of interest for immunomodulatory action.

The oxidized (aged) form of THC. CBN is a weaker version of THC.

A common plant that has been utilized for food, fuel, fiber, and medicine for the last 12,000 years.

Cyclooxygenase 1 is an enzyme that our bodies create to help form new blood vessels on the interior surface of blood and lymph vessels, and protect the mucus lining in the inner stomach by reducing acid secretion. It plays a role in maintaining our bodies’ optimal functioning.

Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 is an enzyme that plays a role in our body’s ability to create inflammation.

A variety of cannabis that has been cultivated through selective breeding. This is another term for variety, strain, or chemovar.

The process of adding heat to raw cannabinoids in order to activate them.

A cannabis product produced by removing everything except for a specific cannabinoid, generally THC or CBD.

The ECS regulates many systems within the body, and mediates the effects felt by consuming some cannabinoids (like THC).

A concentrated cannabis product most commonly produced by using a solvent like CO2, alcohol, or butane. Solventless extracts are also popular, produced by mechanically separating the trichomes from the flower (a.k.a. hash, rosin).

Cannabis products that contain all of the original compounds found in cannabis flower: cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids.

The oldest and largest group of receptors in living organisms. Endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are members of this group.

A legal term that refers to cannabis varieties that produce less than .03% THC in a mature flowering plant. It is often used to refer to varieties that have been bred for agricultural purposes.

Colloquial term that describe varieties of cannabis that have relaxing effects.

A tightly packed group of flowers found at the end of branch or stem - the ‘buds’ on cannabis plants are botanically referred to as inflorescences. 

A cannabis product produced by refining oil extracted from cannabis flower. Isolate may have trace amounts of other cannabinoids and other plant compounds present.

Compounds that bind to a specific receptor are that receptor’s ligands.

An endogenous molecule with a structure similar to anandamide.

Tiny proteins on the surface of most cells. Receptors act as the ‘go-buttons’ on cells, and when activated by compounds that fit into them, tell the cell what to do or not do.

Colloquial term that describe varieties of cannabis that have energizing effects.

Aromatic compounds found in most plants and some insects. Terpenes are responsible for the way cannabis smells, and have been associated with the distinct effects it can produce.

The compound in cannabis responsible for its intoxicating, and many of its medical, effects.

The unheated form of tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) that is produced in cannabis flower. See “acid cannabinoids.”

The hair-like outgrowths that cover cannabis flowers and smaller leaves. Trichomes are where cannabinoids and terpenes are produced.

Sometimes instead of a precursor compounds combining to create cannabigerol (CBG), the parent cannabinoid, slightly different compound combine to create a -varin cannabinoid. There are two fewer carbon atoms in a varin cannabinoid, and the effects from them are very different. Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabidivarin (CBDV) are of medical interest for a number of different conditions.

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