Allosteric modulator

A chemical that increases or decreases the strength of the signal a receptor sends into the cell.

A chemical that increases or decreases the strength of the signal a receptor sends into the cell. Allosteric modulators affect constitutive activity and agonists, but their effect will not necessarily be the same for all agonists of a receptor.

Summary from Wikipedia:

In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein. Targets may be metabotropic, ionotropic and nuclear receptors, enzymes and transporters.

The principal binding site of a macromolecule is termed the 'orthosteric site'. An example is the active site on an enzyme, where a substrate binds. Though, in addition to the orthosteric site, some macromolecules can have their activity affected by ligands binding at a second, 'allosteric' binding site, distinct from the orthosteric site. Allosteric modulators stabilize a conformation of the protein structure that affects either the binding or the efficacy of the primary ligand. Pure modulators have no direct effect on the function of the protein target. The modulatory properties are interdependent with the ternary complex consisting of the target protein, the primary ligand and the modulator.

Read more